Sadly, We Teach People How to Treat Us- It’s a Subconscious Thing. — Chateau Cherie

Here’s something which most targets of bullying don’t realize. Not even I knew this at the time I was being bullied. You teach people how to treat you. And how do you teach them this? By how well you treat yourself– by what you will and will not put up with and by the boundaries […]

Sadly, We Teach People How to Treat Us- It’s a Subconscious Thing. — Chateau Cherie

Its really a good article to read upon. She has written it very beautifully. It even teach us many things, if anybody wants to read and enjoy new learnings….

Be aware: According to NITI Aayog report, 21 Indian cities are already out of Ground water

“Don’t forget the resources are Limited, we can have lots of money but can’t ask our children to drink money”


As mentioned in NITI Aayog report, ground water will end in many places by 2020.  ‘These places include 21 Indian cities, among them Delhi, Bengaluru, Chennai and Hyderabad are most populated. Which will gone to affect 100 million people, comprise of 40 percent of India’s population will have no access to drinking water by 2030.’ After reading too much about groundwater ending by 2020, it is very difficult to watch someone wasting it injudiciously. People are rarely aware, what are they doing? One need to think and be aware about sustainable use of water. Here, sustainability means, use it for yourself by ensuring that it should left enough for our coming generations.

My neighbors wash outer floors, roads with summer pipes, waste 1000 liters of water in just minutes. Our 10% population use RO water filters, which waste 90% of water which could be drinkable. Agriculture mis-practices which are responsible for 90% of ground water waste. We witness 90% of todays river are polluted with industrial waste, sewage discharge, household waste, agriculture waste, religious waste etc.

We need to be aware about some of our dangerous habits: Taking long showers, dishwashing and brushing with running water, having leaky pipes (according to a US report an average household can leak more than 10,000 gallons of water per year), over-watering lawns, cleaning floors and roads with pipes, etc. Water should be declared as an economic asset, and should be linked with water pricing. One should asked with the economic amount equals to water, one use. As the water we using have taken thousands of years to purify.

We are at the verge of water pollution, so increasing RO filters use is also a need. However, we can use it judiciously. The water from waste water pipes can be collected and further used in purposes other than drinking.

We are using centuries old Agriculture practices not fit for todays time. The over-filling water to agriculture lands not only harm the ground water, but also drain out the nutrients, and further pollute the drinking water with its add-on fertilizers. The solution to this Drip irrigation, Sprinkler system, and research and developments is needed in this field. Research shows that sprinkler irrigation can use 30-40 percent less water, while drip can use about 40-60 percent less water compared to flood irrigation methods, he added. As the situation is already alarming.

Case 1: Nearly all waterbodies are polluted: Chennai

Three rivers, four water bodies, five wetlands and six forests have completely dried in Chennai despite having better water resources and rains than any other metro cities. The government is now depends upon the desalination, which is very expensive. The solution to this is water harvesting. It is the collective responsibility of government and the citizen to realize there role in water conservation.

Case 2: Effective irrigation management: Rajasthan’s integrated irrigation solutions

The Government of Rajasthan has implemented a package of solutions in Sanchore along the Narmada river. The micro-irrigation technology has been made mandatory for farmers. And, the watershed development tasks, such as tree plantation and bio drainage also been implemented. The impact was that the Culturable Command Area (CCA) increased from 1.35 Lac hectares to 2.46 hectares with same quantity of water. Drinking facilities improved, food production was increased by 277%.

Yoga and Alternative system of medicine in India

Today is the time to go to the nitty gritty of Yoga philosophy. It is important to have knowledge of ‘YOGA’ as it is not only have a dedicated day of ‘International day for Yoga’ but it is also capable in curing many deadly diseases naturally. However, it is one of six major orthodox school of Hinduism. The origin of such schools is unclear, although we found there first reference in “Upanishad’ which were written in 1st millennium BCE.” The UNESCO has also included in intangible cultural heritage.

Extensive or systemic collection of yoga philosophy was found in book named Yoga sutra by Patanjali. The book mentioned, that there are Eight limbs or Astangyog in the school one can follow to attain Moksha.

Eight limbs or Astangyog of Yoga school

  • Yamas- Practice 5 yamas to transform negative energy and cultivate a deep, abiding sense of peace (Ahimsha, Satya, Asteya, Brahmacharya, Aparigraha)
  • Niyamas- positive duties or observances to be followed are cleanliness, tapa, santosh, svadyaya, surrender.
  • Asana– The physical exercises
  • Pranayam– The breathing exercise
  • Pratyahara- Withdrawal of sense
  • Dharana- state of meditation
  • Dhyana Smadhi- State of oneness

Yoga and Mental health

In 2014 Indian government has declared a separate ‘Ministry of Aayush’ to encourage Indian’s for yoga. The yoga was involved in government school curriculum, at workplace, and communities to make people aware of these practices, and integrate it with scientific evidence. It is helpful in relaxing whole body, make respiration quiet and deep, calm mind. It reduce cortisol level, which is a stress hormone released from adrenal gland, and also reduce neuro inflammation.

In 1995 a new Department of Indian System of Medicine and Homeopathy under Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. In 2003 the department was renamed as AYUSH which stands for Ayurveda, Yoga, Unani, Siddha and Homeopathy and Naturopathy.

Yoga not only talks about exercises but also attach to some of activities including:

  • Ahara (Food)- 50% food+25%water+25%air
  • Vihars (Relaxation)- asana, meditation, sleep
  • Achara (Conduct)- controlling desire
  • Vichara (Thinking)- control thinking
  • Vyavahara (Behavior)- right action

Alternate system of medicine in India

  • Egyptian- advance medicine (2800 BC)
  • Chinese- well documented records (2700 BC)
  • Mesopotamian- Codes of Hammurabi (2000 BC)
  • Greek- Hippocrates ‘Father of Medicine’ (460 BC)
  • Roman- emerge from Greek (130 AD)
  • Arab medicine (Unani)- Damascus, Cairo and Baghdad adopted

During 3000 to 3500 BC medicine came to existence in India, around 200BC there were many form of medicine started influencing one another. In mid 15th century there came the scientific and modern medicines. In mid 19th century Allopathy was distinguished from Homeopathy by CFS Hahneman.


Indian medicine was started with vedic period called ayurveda means ‘knowledge of life’ not of veda, and considered as upaanga of atharvaveda (give divine authority). It take man in entirety with physical, chemical, biological, and spiritual effects. According to it human body is composed of Earth, Water, Fire, Air, and Sky.

This medicine system is based on balance of Tridosha (kapha- phlegm, vaata- wind, and pitta- bile). It is further connected to three Gunas (sattva- goodness or constructive or harmonious; rajas- passion or active or confused; and tamas- darkness or destructive or chaotic). The treatment was based on observation of diet regime. However, later the medicine were composed of Fe, cu, Pb, Au, and Hg.

Important works were: Sushruta samhita, Charak samhita, Madhava nidhana, and Shranghdhar smahita.

  • Siddha system was a chemical based medicine system flourished in Tamil Nadu.
  • Unani system was flourished during Akbar regime.
  • Allopathy system was a modern medicine, its creation was based on opposite effect.
  • Homeopathy system based on “Like cures Like” concept. Substance that cause same symptom of disease in healthy can cure disease in sick.
  • Sowa Rigpa system has its origin may be India, China or Tibet.
  • Naturopathy system treat diseases with natural elements. It says diseases are caused by accumulation of toxins. The treatments resembles: Earth- mud bath; Water- hydrotherapeutic method of bath; Air- breathing exercise; Fire- sun bath and Fasting therapy etc.

The story of Origin of Earth

Who among us have no fantasy to know about our planet Earth. Every single nation has involved itself in expeditious research programs. These programs include the Earth, the Universe, and every location with the possibility for resources. The increasing population, and there need of ample amount of resources is forcing every country in the race of research and development. Let’s gather the information we have till date about the “Origin of Earth.”

Origin of Universe: Old Theories

  • Nebular Hypothesis, by Immanuel Kant, revised by Laplace, 1896: Planet were formed out of cloud of material associated with youthful sun, which was slowly rotating, and slowly the matter condensed.
  • Chamberlain and Moulton, 1900: A wandering star approach the sun, leads to separation of cigar shaped extension of material from solar surface, as the passing star moved away the separated material continued to revolve around sun and slowly condensed. When the cloud rotate faster it looses heat and radiation that slowly leads to contraction and compression of gases to solid. The solar extension slowly separated into 9 parts that is 9 planets. Later this theory was also supported by Sir James Jeans and Sir Harold Jeffrey.
  • Binary theory by Otto Schmid, and Carl Weizascar, 1950: Sun was surrounded by solar nebula that contain mostly Hydrogen and Helium, along with dust particles. The friction and collision among the particles results formation of disk shaped cloud. The later times this disc leads to the formation of planet through process of accretion (or external accumulation).

Origin of Universe: Modern theories

  • Big bang theory, 1920 by Edwin Hubble (expanding universe hypothesis): This theory defines the process in certain stages. At first stage, all the matter was concentrated at a single point with infinite temperature and density. At second stage, this particle exploded with a huge and rapid expansion within seconds leads to conversion of some energy into matter. At third stage, gradually the temperature drops to 4500K within 3 lakh years, and gave rise to atomic matter and the universe become transparent.

Origin of Stars

  • Galaxy start to form by accumulate Hydrogen gas in the form of very large cloud, called as Nebula. Eventually the growing Nebula develops localized clumps of gases. These clumps continue to grow denser, leading to formation of stars (took 5-6 billion years ago).

Origin of Planets

  • Planetesimal theory: Stars are localized lumps of gases within nebula. Gas cloud starts getting condensed around small round objects, forms smaller round bodies, called “Planetesimals.” These planetesimals by the process of Accretion, formed fewer larger bodies, called Planets.

Our Solar system

It consists of eight planets, sixty-three moons, and millions of smaller bodies called asteroids and comets with a huge quantity of dust, grains and gases.

The Moon

  • In 1838, George Darwin, suggested that the earth and moon formed from a single rotating body. This body was initially of dumb-bell shaped, eventually that breaks. It also suggest that the material forming the moon was separated from the Earth cause depression, called Pacific ocean.
  • Giant impact or big splat theory: A larger body collide to Earth, it blast the portion into space. The separated portion continues to orbit earth, and eventually formed the present Moon.

Evolution of the Earth

The planet earth initially was barren, rocky and hot object with the thin atmosphere of hydrogen and helium. In early stages or pre-mordial stage or volatile state there was a gradual increase in density and temperature. At this stage the separation of matter on the basis of density that is ‘Iron’ will go to the core and the lighter will come at outer layers. After separation the body solidified, and formed the Earth.

Evolution of Atmosphere and hydrosphere

The earlier or primordial atmosphere was composed of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia, vapor, and very little oxygen. This was lost by solar winds. The hot interior then contributed in the evolution of atmosphere, by degassing and volcanic eruptions. The continuous rain and evaporation from staring leads to develop giant oceans. The earlier rain dissolves the atmospheric carbon dioxide. In later times the composition of atmosphere was changed by the process called photosynthesis.

Origin of Life on Earth

According to scientific theories, the origin of life was a chemical reaction. It is associated with the conversion of inanimate matter to living substances. The life began on earth 3,800 million years ago from single celled, simplest organisms.

Happy 75th Independence Day: Unity is our strength, feel it

We are celebrating Independence Day, for successful completion of 75 years of being a independent, sovereign nation in 2021. The day we got Independence from Britishers, fall on 15th August.

This marks the unity of all Indian Diversities, holds the significance in all our hearts. It not only remind us our independence from 200 years of colonial rule but also serves as a reminder of all the virtue, pride, colorful history, cultural richness, diversity and landscapes which we must all feel proud to call our homeland. This is the day, we commemorate and pay homage to courageous sacrifices of our freedom fighters, due to whom this beautiful day is reality today. Sadly, the day also marks the anniversary of undivided India’s separation into two nations- India and Pakistan, that later results into three nation with Bangladesh.

The message of non-violence, particularly, is something that is still remembered by people worldwide. Who could forget the spirited march for freedom led by great leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, Rani Lakshmi Bai, Bhagat Singh, Subhas Chandra Bose? Most importantly, it was not just an independence march won through wars, but through the hard work and determination put by millions of Indians, no matter how small or big their individual contribution was.

How’s it celebrated?

Since, the day of 15 August, 1947 when Shri Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, who turned out to be the first Prime Minister of Independent India, raised the Indian national flag over the Lahori Gate at the Red Fort in Delhi. Every year the national flag of India is hoisted from the same platform by the contemporary Prime Ministers of our country. Flag hoisting will be synchronized with 21 Gun Salute fire.

Current year the country will honour the Olympic winners, the Corona warriors. For the first time ever, the National Flag is hoisted by the Prime Minister, flower petals will be showered at the venue by two Mi 17 1V helicopters of the Indian Air Force in Amrut Formation. Sadly, there will be no chief guest, due to pandemic.

All important Government Buildings are beautifully adorned with sparkly lights every evening. The drummers also give a solo performance (known as the Drummer’s Call). The bands march back playing a popular martial tune ‘Saare Jahan Se Achcha‘. At exactly 6 pm, National Flag is lowered, and the National Anthem is sung, bringing the Independence Day celebrations to a formal end.

The freedom need a price, never forget the bloodshed and brutality this great nation has endured in the past. This day, the feeling should be carried on hearts and should express in action. Our freedom fighters have given us a responsibility to make this nation stand forever. Our nation is dealing with many problems this time the increasing communalism, the mob violence, and the politicizing societies. To be the part of successful nation, internal security should not be a cause to stop us.

Google is source of all information and photos


According to a report by United Nations, India will be concentration with the largest population in world by 2047. The population growth is linked with overall economic, social, and political advancements of future. Its high time to understand the role of population. If we talk about the Etymology (science of the origin of any word):

  • Demography (greek)= Demos (people) + Graphein (describe) 
  • Systemic study of population (composition, patterns, structure)
  • Economic development and population growth (-ve relation)

We can calculate demography in many different ways:

  • Formal- quantitative analysis (deals with numbers) and qualitative analysis (deals with type of population)
  • Social- It deals with economic, political aspects of population with a wider view.

This data can be used in planning and implementation of state policies, and also to plan economic welfare of weaker section. One can study population growth in many ways, here we will discuss the “Theory of Thomas Robert Malthus” who was a English Political Economist. He had discussed his theory in an essay titled “Essay on Population” in 1798. According to him, the population rises exponentially i.e. 2, 4, 6, 8, 16, 32, … and so on, however, the agriculture production rises arithmetically i.e. 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, … and so on. By this concluded that the humanity will always live in poverty and starvation.

According to him, we need to control the population by adopting some practices like: postpone marriages, sexual abstinence, and celibacy. He also adds that Famine is a natural and inevitable way to control the population growth.

Although, others says that the real cause of poverty is unequal distribution of resources. Which could be corrected by economic advancement, green revolution, technical growth and disease control etc.

Theory of Demographic transition

Every population growth can be studied under some transition stages; which could help us predict the future growth patterns. The growth follows the older pattern and the technological development of area, and follows a cycle called demographic cycle. The transition theory divided the population growth in three stages:

Stage 1- Pre-Transition

The population has high birth rate with low literacy rate, less development of technologies, and the most societies seems to be indulge in agriculture. This period also have high death rates due to high frequency of epidemics and variable food supply with no storage technology available.

Stage 2- Transitional

Here, the population has high birth rate in beginning which show visible decline with time. It shows increasing literacy rate, growing development of technologies, and diversification in economic sector, still the most societies seems to be indulge in agriculture. This period also have declining death rates due to improve in sanitation and health conditions.

Stage 3- Post transitional

The conditions are now improving as now is the time we can see nearly equal birth and death rates. The population is increasing itself to high technical knowledge, and also focused towards family planning. An aware population leads towards stable and low population growth.

There are several factors which influence the distribution of population:

  • Historical factors: Historical importance of place
  • Geographical feature– water availability, Flat plain, gentle slope, Moderate climate, fertile soil, etc.
  • Economic Factors- mineral presence, urbanization, industrialization, etc.
  • Social and cultural factors– religious and cultural significance

Indian Population

To calculate the population, government count everyone every tenth year, and the process called census. First such census was done in 1872. Indian population is in the later phase of second transition stage of population. Government has taken many population control missions “Parivar Vikas Mission” to increase access to contraceptives and family planning services in 146 districts with high fertility rates.

There is visible investment in generation of sufficient employment, health care sector, to skill workforce, education sector, and also to women empowerment.

The many mirages in Indian agriculture

Very Informative…. Read

Contested Realities

After a week of harvest and another of preparing the farm plots for next sowing season, here are some quick notes.

  1. Farm mechanisation is a serious need. The processes in small scale farming are completely manual. These are limiting the ways in which farmers organize farm processes and their ability to extract efficiencies from the farm. For instance, we harvested about 1.2 tons of groundnuts. The workers who helped harvest it and pluck the pods off the plants took a total of 15% of harvested groundnuts as their wages. There is no way a farm can yield returns at that level of labour cost for just one stage of the cropping process. Then there is post-harvest management that involves labour in cleaning, sun drying for a couple of days, filling up in bags and storing it in the warehouse. All of these are done manually. 
  2. Small farm holdings are a…

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“Eid Mubarak” Friends

The beautiful day has again arrived i.e. Bakra Eid also known as Eid-ul-Adha. It is an important festival celebrated by Muslims across the world. It is also considered holier among two Eids, Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Adha. It is celebrated on at the end of Hajj. Hajj is a yearly pilgrimage to Mecca which Muslims are required to embark on once in their live.

God had once asked Prophet Ibrahim to sacrifice the dearest thing to him to prove his love and faith, the Prophet decided to sacrifice his only son. However, when he was about to kill his son, God sent his angel Jibra’il (Gabriel) to replace the son with a goat. And so, since that day Bakra Eid is celebrated to remember Prophet Ibrahim’s faith in God. The festival is celebrated by sacrificing a male goat. The meat is divided into three portions; the first part is given to relatives, friends and neighbours; the second to the poor and needy; the third is for the family.

The world is celebrating Eid-Ul-Adha, I wish very happy Eid to every single person.

वे मुसलमान थे – देवी प्रसाद मिश्र

'देवी प्रसाद मिश्र' नाम के कवि ने 'मुसलमान' शीर्षक से एक बहुत ही सुन्दर कविता लिखी है। पेश है, कविता...

कहते हैं वे विपत्ति की तरह आए
कहते हैं वे प्रदूषण की तरह फैले
वे व्याधि थे

ब्राह्मण कहते थे वे मलेच्छ थे

वे मुसलमान थे

उन्होंने अपने घोड़े सिन्धु में उतारे
और पुकारते रहे हिन्दू! हिन्दू!! हिन्दू!!!

बड़ी जाति को उन्होंने बड़ा नाम दिया
नदी का नाम दिया

वे हर गहरी और अविरल नदी को
पार करना चाहते थे

वे मुसलमान थे लेकिन वे भी
यदि कबीर की समझदारी का सहारा लिया जाए तो
हिन्दुओं की तरह पैदा होते थे

उनके पास बड़ी-बड़ी कहानियाँ थीं
चलने की
ठहरने की
पिटने की
और मृत्यु की

प्रतिपक्षी के ख़ून में घुटनों तक
और अपने ख़ून में कन्धों तक
वे डूबे होते थे
उनकी मुट्ठियों में घोड़ों की लगामें
और म्यानों में सभ्यता के
नक्शे होते थे

न! मृत्यु के लिए नहीं
वे मृत्यु के लिए युद्ध नहीं लड़ते थे

वे मुसलमान थे

वे फ़ारस से आए
तूरान से आए
समरकन्द, फ़रग़ना, सीस्तान से आए
तुर्किस्तान से आए

वे बहुत दूर से आए
फिर भी वे पृथ्वी के ही कुछ हिस्सों से आए
वे आए क्योंकि वे आ सकते थे

वे मुसलमान थे

वे मुसलमान थे कि या ख़ुदा उनकी शक्लें
आदमियों से मिलती थीं हूबहू

वे महत्त्वपूर्ण अप्रवासी थे
क्योंकि उनके पास दुख की स्मृतियाँ थीं

वे घोड़ों के साथ सोते थे
और चट्टानों पर वीर्य बिख़ेर देते थे
निर्माण के लिए वे बेचैन थे

वे मुसलमान थे

यदि सच को सच की तरह कहा जा सकता है
तो सच को सच की तरह सुना जाना चाहिए

कि वे प्रायः इस तरह होते थे
कि प्रायः पता ही नहीं लगता था
कि वे मुसलमान थे या नहीं थे

वे मुसलमान थे

वे न होते तो लखनऊ न होता
आधा इलाहाबाद न होता
मेहराबें न होतीं, गुम्बद न होता
आदाब न होता

मीर मक़दूम मोमिन न होते
शबाना न होती

वे न होते तो उपमहाद्वीप के संगीत को सुननेवाला ख़ुसरो न होता
वे न होते तो पूरे देश के गुस्से से बेचैन होनेवाला कबीर न होता
वे न होते तो भारतीय उपमहाद्वीप के दुख को कहनेवाला ग़ालिब न होता

मुसलमान न होते तो अट्ठारह सौ सत्तावन न होता

वे थे तो चचा हसन थे
वे थे तो पतंगों से रंगीन होते आसमान थे
वे मुसलमान थे

वे मुसलमान थे और हिन्दुस्तान में थे
और उनके रिश्तेदार पाकिस्तान में थे

वे सोचते थे कि काश वे एक बार पाकिस्तान जा सकते
वे सोचते थे और सोचकर डरते थे

इमरान ख़ान को देखकर वे ख़ुश होते थे
वे ख़ुश होते थे और ख़ुश होकर डरते थे

वे जितना पी०ए०सी० के सिपाही से डरते थे
उतना ही राम से
वे मुरादाबाद से डरते थे
वे मेरठ से डरते थे
वे भागलपुर से डरते थे
वे अकड़ते थे लेकिन डरते थे

वे पवित्र रंगों से डरते थे
वे अपने मुसलमान होने से डरते थे

वे फ़िलीस्तीनी नहीं थे लेकिन अपने घर को लेकर घर में
देश को लेकर देश में
ख़ुद को लेकर आश्वस्त नहीं थे

वे उखड़ा-उखड़ा राग-द्वेष थे
वे मुसलमान थे

वे कपड़े बुनते थे
वे कपड़े सिलते थे
वे ताले बनाते थे
वे बक्से बनाते थे
उनके श्रम की आवाज़ें
पूरे शहर में गूँजती रहती थीं

वे शहर के बाहर रहते थे

वे मुसलमान थे लेकिन दमिश्क उनका शहर नहीं था
वे मुसलमान थे अरब का पैट्रोल उनका नहीं था
वे दज़ला का नहीं यमुना का पानी पीते थे

वे मुसलमान थे

वे मुसलमान थे इसलिए बचके निकलते थे
वे मुसलमान थे इसलिए कुछ कहते थे तो हिचकते थे
देश के ज़्यादातर अख़बार यह कहते थे
कि मुसलमान के कारण ही कर्फ़्यू लगते हैं
कर्फ़्यू लगते थे और एक के बाद दूसरे हादसे की
ख़बरें आती थीं

उनकी औरतें
बिना दहाड़ मारे पछाड़ें खाती थीं
बच्चे दीवारों से चिपके रहते थे
वे मुसलमान थे

वे मुसलमान थे इसलिए
जंग लगे तालों की तरह वे खुलते नहीं थे

वे अगर पाँच बार नमाज़ पढ़ते थे
तो उससे कई गुना ज़्यादा बार
सिर पटकते थे
वे मुसलमान थे

वे पूछना चाहते थे कि इस लालकिले का हम क्या करें
वे पूछना चाहते थे कि इस हुमायूं के मक़बरे का हम क्या करें
हम क्या करें इस मस्जिद का जिसका नाम
कुव्वत-उल-इस्लाम है
इस्लाम की ताक़त है

अदरक की तरह वे बहुत कड़वे थे
वे मुसलमान थे

वे सोचते थे कि कहीं और चले जाएँ
लेकिन नहीं जा सकते थे
वे सोचते थे यहीं रह जाएँ
तो नहीं रह सकते थे
वे आधा जिबह बकरे की तरह तकलीफ़ के झटके महसूस करते थे

वे मुसलमान थे इसलिए
तूफ़ान में फँसे जहाज़ के मुसाफ़िरों की तरह
एक दूसरे को भींचे रहते थे

कुछ लोगों ने यह बहस चलाई थी कि
उन्हें फेंका जाए तो
किस समुद्र में फेंका जाए
बहस यह थी
कि उन्हें धकेला जाए
तो किस पहाड़ से धकेला जाए

वे मुसलमान थे लेकिन वे चींटियाँ नहीं थे
वे मुसलमान थे वे चूजे नहीं थे

सिन्धु के दक्षिण में
सैंकड़ों सालों की नागरिकता के बाद
मिट्टी के ढेले नहीं थे वे

वे चट्टान और ऊन की तरह सच थे
वे सिन्धु और हिन्दुकुश की तरह सच थे
सच को जिस तरह भी समझा जा सकता हो
उस तरह वे सच थे
वे सभ्यता का अनिवार्य नियम थे
वे मुसलमान थे अफ़वाह नहीं थे

वे मुसलमान थे
वे मुसलमान थे
वे मुसलमान थे

Lytton, Canada experienced 50°C

Canada, one of the coldest countries, has temperatures falling as low as -20°C or -30°C in winters. However, now it has experienced 49.6°C, almost 50°C. Even Delhi has not experienced that much temperature. You did normally expect 50°C temperature in Dubai or some other Middle Eastern country. How it has been possible here???

Let’s talk specifically about the area, where the temperature record has been smashed. There is a state in southwest Canada, British Columbia. In this state, there is a village named Lytton. Lies on the 50° latitude same as London, which means that the distance between the equator and both cities is the same. It is important to know because the farther we go from the equator, the colder it gets.

The climate of the area is described as Mild climate. So, most of the homes in this village don’t have air conditioners.

You could see the temperature this area experiences according to the month. (Picture from

July and August are the months of maximum temperature that could be expected on average of around 28°C. Although, several times it has been seen that the temperature has exceeded up to 40°C. But as you could see that the winters have temperature around -5°C or -10°C. Even the record minimum temperature here is -31°C.

Now let’s compare it with the city like Delhi because summers in Delhi are so hot that 45°C is often seen. However, Delhi’s recorded highest temperature is 48°C. The village of Canada has beaten even this. The heat was so intense, that the power cables melted, the roads got cracked. As most of the people didn’t have air conditioning in their homes, people went to public places with air conditioning to take shelter. Some people slept in their cars throughout the night with the AC turned on.

But this lasted for few days. After this, there was heatwave-induced forest fire to the nearby forest. This fire encroached on the village, and burned down 90% of the village completely. You can see in the photos…

The forest fire burning the village (photo from sky news)

Experts say that the root cause behind this extreme weather event is climate change. However, technically the reason was ‘Heat Dome.’

You could see that normally hot air rises upwards and create a situation of high pressure in the atmosphere, that again push down the hot air back to the surface. This dense and compressed air is even hotter. (Photo from DristiIAS)

Although the only heat dome is not responsible, the climate change-induced extreme weather events are becoming more frequent. Countries need to focus on the goals decided in Paris Agreement, 2015. Decided to contain the global average temperature rise to 2°C, preferably to 1.5°C when compared to pre-industrial era that is the time between 1850-1900. The steps should be taken in order to contain the temperature.

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