Sketch for relaxation

Hobbies are really need to develop for our free time as sometimes they are needed to just pass your time with yourself. Try some of your own and enjoy.

They day was becoming bulky with books, it was becoming difficult to look into. The brain was at different level of revolt against studying. Nothing was working, nobody was online to disturb.

In order relax your brain sometimes, it just feel to draw something. This time I choose to draw a sketch of one of my friend. Have a look…

My friend

The story of Origin of Earth

Who among us have no fantasy to know about our planet Earth. Every single nation has involved itself in expeditious research programs. These programs include the Earth, the Universe, and every location with the possibility for resources. The increasing population, and there need of ample amount of resources is forcing every country in the race of research and development. Let’s gather the information we have till date about the “Origin of Earth.”

Origin of Universe: Old Theories

  • Nebular Hypothesis, by Immanuel Kant, revised by Laplace, 1896: Planet were formed out of cloud of material associated with youthful sun, which was slowly rotating, and slowly the matter condensed.
  • Chamberlain and Moulton, 1900: A wandering star approach the sun, leads to separation of cigar shaped extension of material from solar surface, as the passing star moved away the separated material continued to revolve around sun and slowly condensed. When the cloud rotate faster it looses heat and radiation that slowly leads to contraction and compression of gases to solid. The solar extension slowly separated into 9 parts that is 9 planets. Later this theory was also supported by Sir James Jeans and Sir Harold Jeffrey.
  • Binary theory by Otto Schmid, and Carl Weizascar, 1950: Sun was surrounded by solar nebula that contain mostly Hydrogen and Helium, along with dust particles. The friction and collision among the particles results formation of disk shaped cloud. The later times this disc leads to the formation of planet through process of accretion (or external accumulation).

Origin of Universe: Modern theories

  • Big bang theory, 1920 by Edwin Hubble (expanding universe hypothesis): This theory defines the process in certain stages. At first stage, all the matter was concentrated at a single point with infinite temperature and density. At second stage, this particle exploded with a huge and rapid expansion within seconds leads to conversion of some energy into matter. At third stage, gradually the temperature drops to 4500K within 3 lakh years, and gave rise to atomic matter and the universe become transparent.

Origin of Stars

  • Galaxy start to form by accumulate Hydrogen gas in the form of very large cloud, called as Nebula. Eventually the growing Nebula develops localized clumps of gases. These clumps continue to grow denser, leading to formation of stars (took 5-6 billion years ago).

Origin of Planets

  • Planetesimal theory: Stars are localized lumps of gases within nebula. Gas cloud starts getting condensed around small round objects, forms smaller round bodies, called “Planetesimals.” These planetesimals by the process of Accretion, formed fewer larger bodies, called Planets.

Our Solar system

It consists of eight planets, sixty-three moons, and millions of smaller bodies called asteroids and comets with a huge quantity of dust, grains and gases.

The Moon

  • In 1838, George Darwin, suggested that the earth and moon formed from a single rotating body. This body was initially of dumb-bell shaped, eventually that breaks. It also suggest that the material forming the moon was separated from the Earth cause depression, called Pacific ocean.
  • Giant impact or big splat theory: A larger body collide to Earth, it blast the portion into space. The separated portion continues to orbit earth, and eventually formed the present Moon.

Evolution of the Earth

The planet earth initially was barren, rocky and hot object with the thin atmosphere of hydrogen and helium. In early stages or pre-mordial stage or volatile state there was a gradual increase in density and temperature. At this stage the separation of matter on the basis of density that is ‘Iron’ will go to the core and the lighter will come at outer layers. After separation the body solidified, and formed the Earth.

Evolution of Atmosphere and hydrosphere

The earlier or primordial atmosphere was composed of nitrogen, carbon dioxide, methane, ammonia, vapor, and very little oxygen. This was lost by solar winds. The hot interior then contributed in the evolution of atmosphere, by degassing and volcanic eruptions. The continuous rain and evaporation from staring leads to develop giant oceans. The earlier rain dissolves the atmospheric carbon dioxide. In later times the composition of atmosphere was changed by the process called photosynthesis.

Origin of Life on Earth

According to scientific theories, the origin of life was a chemical reaction. It is associated with the conversion of inanimate matter to living substances. The life began on earth 3,800 million years ago from single celled, simplest organisms.

Happy 75th Independence Day: Unity is our strength, feel it

We are celebrating Independence Day, for successful completion of 75 years of being a independent, sovereign nation in 2021. The day we got Independence from Britishers, fall on 15th August.

This marks the unity of all Indian Diversities, holds the significance in all our hearts. It not only remind us our independence from 200 years of colonial rule but also serves as a reminder of all the virtue, pride, colorful history, cultural richness, diversity and landscapes which we must all feel proud to call our homeland. This is the day, we commemorate and pay homage to courageous sacrifices of our freedom fighters, due to whom this beautiful day is reality today. Sadly, the day also marks the anniversary of undivided India’s separation into two nations- India and Pakistan, that later results into three nation with Bangladesh.

The message of non-violence, particularly, is something that is still remembered by people worldwide. Who could forget the spirited march for freedom led by great leaders like Mahatma Gandhi, Rani Lakshmi Bai, Bhagat Singh, Subhas Chandra Bose? Most importantly, it was not just an independence march won through wars, but through the hard work and determination put by millions of Indians, no matter how small or big their individual contribution was.

How’s it celebrated?

Since, the day of 15 August, 1947 when Shri Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, who turned out to be the first Prime Minister of Independent India, raised the Indian national flag over the Lahori Gate at the Red Fort in Delhi. Every year the national flag of India is hoisted from the same platform by the contemporary Prime Ministers of our country. Flag hoisting will be synchronized with 21 Gun Salute fire.

Current year the country will honour the Olympic winners, the Corona warriors. For the first time ever, the National Flag is hoisted by the Prime Minister, flower petals will be showered at the venue by two Mi 17 1V helicopters of the Indian Air Force in Amrut Formation. Sadly, there will be no chief guest, due to pandemic.

All important Government Buildings are beautifully adorned with sparkly lights every evening. The drummers also give a solo performance (known as the Drummer’s Call). The bands march back playing a popular martial tune ‘Saare Jahan Se Achcha‘. At exactly 6 pm, National Flag is lowered, and the National Anthem is sung, bringing the Independence Day celebrations to a formal end.

The freedom need a price, never forget the bloodshed and brutality this great nation has endured in the past. This day, the feeling should be carried on hearts and should express in action. Our freedom fighters have given us a responsibility to make this nation stand forever. Our nation is dealing with many problems this time the increasing communalism, the mob violence, and the politicizing societies. To be the part of successful nation, internal security should not be a cause to stop us.

Google is source of all information and photos

Demography

According to a report by United Nations, India will be concentration with the largest population in world by 2047. The population growth is linked with overall economic, social, and political advancements of future. Its high time to understand the role of population. If we talk about the Etymology (science of the origin of any word):

  • Demography (greek)= Demos (people) + Graphein (describe) 
  • Systemic study of population (composition, patterns, structure)
  • Economic development and population growth (-ve relation)

We can calculate demography in many different ways:

  • Formal- quantitative analysis (deals with numbers) and qualitative analysis (deals with type of population)
  • Social- It deals with economic, political aspects of population with a wider view.

This data can be used in planning and implementation of state policies, and also to plan economic welfare of weaker section. One can study population growth in many ways, here we will discuss the “Theory of Thomas Robert Malthus” who was a English Political Economist. He had discussed his theory in an essay titled “Essay on Population” in 1798. According to him, the population rises exponentially i.e. 2, 4, 6, 8, 16, 32, … and so on, however, the agriculture production rises arithmetically i.e. 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, … and so on. By this concluded that the humanity will always live in poverty and starvation.

According to him, we need to control the population by adopting some practices like: postpone marriages, sexual abstinence, and celibacy. He also adds that Famine is a natural and inevitable way to control the population growth.

Although, others says that the real cause of poverty is unequal distribution of resources. Which could be corrected by economic advancement, green revolution, technical growth and disease control etc.

Theory of Demographic transition

Every population growth can be studied under some transition stages; which could help us predict the future growth patterns. The growth follows the older pattern and the technological development of area, and follows a cycle called demographic cycle. The transition theory divided the population growth in three stages:

Stage 1- Pre-Transition

The population has high birth rate with low literacy rate, less development of technologies, and the most societies seems to be indulge in agriculture. This period also have high death rates due to high frequency of epidemics and variable food supply with no storage technology available.

Stage 2- Transitional

Here, the population has high birth rate in beginning which show visible decline with time. It shows increasing literacy rate, growing development of technologies, and diversification in economic sector, still the most societies seems to be indulge in agriculture. This period also have declining death rates due to improve in sanitation and health conditions.

Stage 3- Post transitional

The conditions are now improving as now is the time we can see nearly equal birth and death rates. The population is increasing itself to high technical knowledge, and also focused towards family planning. An aware population leads towards stable and low population growth.

There are several factors which influence the distribution of population:

  • Historical factors: Historical importance of place
  • Geographical feature– water availability, Flat plain, gentle slope, Moderate climate, fertile soil, etc.
  • Economic Factors- mineral presence, urbanization, industrialization, etc.
  • Social and cultural factors– religious and cultural significance

Indian Population

To calculate the population, government count everyone every tenth year, and the process called census. First such census was done in 1872. Indian population is in the later phase of second transition stage of population. Government has taken many population control missions “Parivar Vikas Mission” to increase access to contraceptives and family planning services in 146 districts with high fertility rates.

There is visible investment in generation of sufficient employment, health care sector, to skill workforce, education sector, and also to women empowerment.

The many mirages in Indian agriculture

Very Informative…. Read

Contested Realities

After a week of harvest and another of preparing the farm plots for next sowing season, here are some quick notes.

  1. Farm mechanisation is a serious need. The processes in small scale farming are completely manual. These are limiting the ways in which farmers organize farm processes and their ability to extract efficiencies from the farm. For instance, we harvested about 1.2 tons of groundnuts. The workers who helped harvest it and pluck the pods off the plants took a total of 15% of harvested groundnuts as their wages. There is no way a farm can yield returns at that level of labour cost for just one stage of the cropping process. Then there is post-harvest management that involves labour in cleaning, sun drying for a couple of days, filling up in bags and storing it in the warehouse. All of these are done manually. 
  2. Small farm holdings are a…

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“Eid Mubarak” Friends

The beautiful day has again arrived i.e. Bakra Eid also known as Eid-ul-Adha. It is an important festival celebrated by Muslims across the world. It is also considered holier among two Eids, Eid-ul-Fitr and Eid-ul-Adha. It is celebrated on at the end of Hajj. Hajj is a yearly pilgrimage to Mecca which Muslims are required to embark on once in their live.

God had once asked Prophet Ibrahim to sacrifice the dearest thing to him to prove his love and faith, the Prophet decided to sacrifice his only son. However, when he was about to kill his son, God sent his angel Jibra’il (Gabriel) to replace the son with a goat. And so, since that day Bakra Eid is celebrated to remember Prophet Ibrahim’s faith in God. The festival is celebrated by sacrificing a male goat. The meat is divided into three portions; the first part is given to relatives, friends and neighbours; the second to the poor and needy; the third is for the family.

The world is celebrating Eid-Ul-Adha, I wish very happy Eid to every single person.

वे मुसलमान थे – देवी प्रसाद मिश्र

'देवी प्रसाद मिश्र' नाम के कवि ने 'मुसलमान' शीर्षक से एक बहुत ही सुन्दर कविता लिखी है। पेश है, कविता...

कहते हैं वे विपत्ति की तरह आए
कहते हैं वे प्रदूषण की तरह फैले
वे व्याधि थे

ब्राह्मण कहते थे वे मलेच्छ थे

वे मुसलमान थे

उन्होंने अपने घोड़े सिन्धु में उतारे
और पुकारते रहे हिन्दू! हिन्दू!! हिन्दू!!!

बड़ी जाति को उन्होंने बड़ा नाम दिया
नदी का नाम दिया

वे हर गहरी और अविरल नदी को
पार करना चाहते थे

वे मुसलमान थे लेकिन वे भी
यदि कबीर की समझदारी का सहारा लिया जाए तो
हिन्दुओं की तरह पैदा होते थे

उनके पास बड़ी-बड़ी कहानियाँ थीं
चलने की
ठहरने की
पिटने की
और मृत्यु की

प्रतिपक्षी के ख़ून में घुटनों तक
और अपने ख़ून में कन्धों तक
वे डूबे होते थे
उनकी मुट्ठियों में घोड़ों की लगामें
और म्यानों में सभ्यता के
नक्शे होते थे

न! मृत्यु के लिए नहीं
वे मृत्यु के लिए युद्ध नहीं लड़ते थे

वे मुसलमान थे

वे फ़ारस से आए
तूरान से आए
समरकन्द, फ़रग़ना, सीस्तान से आए
तुर्किस्तान से आए

वे बहुत दूर से आए
फिर भी वे पृथ्वी के ही कुछ हिस्सों से आए
वे आए क्योंकि वे आ सकते थे

वे मुसलमान थे

वे मुसलमान थे कि या ख़ुदा उनकी शक्लें
आदमियों से मिलती थीं हूबहू
हूबहू

वे महत्त्वपूर्ण अप्रवासी थे
क्योंकि उनके पास दुख की स्मृतियाँ थीं

वे घोड़ों के साथ सोते थे
और चट्टानों पर वीर्य बिख़ेर देते थे
निर्माण के लिए वे बेचैन थे

वे मुसलमान थे

यदि सच को सच की तरह कहा जा सकता है
तो सच को सच की तरह सुना जाना चाहिए

कि वे प्रायः इस तरह होते थे
कि प्रायः पता ही नहीं लगता था
कि वे मुसलमान थे या नहीं थे

वे मुसलमान थे

वे न होते तो लखनऊ न होता
आधा इलाहाबाद न होता
मेहराबें न होतीं, गुम्बद न होता
आदाब न होता

मीर मक़दूम मोमिन न होते
शबाना न होती

वे न होते तो उपमहाद्वीप के संगीत को सुननेवाला ख़ुसरो न होता
वे न होते तो पूरे देश के गुस्से से बेचैन होनेवाला कबीर न होता
वे न होते तो भारतीय उपमहाद्वीप के दुख को कहनेवाला ग़ालिब न होता

मुसलमान न होते तो अट्ठारह सौ सत्तावन न होता

वे थे तो चचा हसन थे
वे थे तो पतंगों से रंगीन होते आसमान थे
वे मुसलमान थे

वे मुसलमान थे और हिन्दुस्तान में थे
और उनके रिश्तेदार पाकिस्तान में थे

वे सोचते थे कि काश वे एक बार पाकिस्तान जा सकते
वे सोचते थे और सोचकर डरते थे

इमरान ख़ान को देखकर वे ख़ुश होते थे
वे ख़ुश होते थे और ख़ुश होकर डरते थे

वे जितना पी०ए०सी० के सिपाही से डरते थे
उतना ही राम से
वे मुरादाबाद से डरते थे
वे मेरठ से डरते थे
वे भागलपुर से डरते थे
वे अकड़ते थे लेकिन डरते थे

वे पवित्र रंगों से डरते थे
वे अपने मुसलमान होने से डरते थे

वे फ़िलीस्तीनी नहीं थे लेकिन अपने घर को लेकर घर में
देश को लेकर देश में
ख़ुद को लेकर आश्वस्त नहीं थे

वे उखड़ा-उखड़ा राग-द्वेष थे
वे मुसलमान थे

वे कपड़े बुनते थे
वे कपड़े सिलते थे
वे ताले बनाते थे
वे बक्से बनाते थे
उनके श्रम की आवाज़ें
पूरे शहर में गूँजती रहती थीं

वे शहर के बाहर रहते थे

वे मुसलमान थे लेकिन दमिश्क उनका शहर नहीं था
वे मुसलमान थे अरब का पैट्रोल उनका नहीं था
वे दज़ला का नहीं यमुना का पानी पीते थे

वे मुसलमान थे

वे मुसलमान थे इसलिए बचके निकलते थे
वे मुसलमान थे इसलिए कुछ कहते थे तो हिचकते थे
देश के ज़्यादातर अख़बार यह कहते थे
कि मुसलमान के कारण ही कर्फ़्यू लगते हैं
कर्फ़्यू लगते थे और एक के बाद दूसरे हादसे की
ख़बरें आती थीं

उनकी औरतें
बिना दहाड़ मारे पछाड़ें खाती थीं
बच्चे दीवारों से चिपके रहते थे
वे मुसलमान थे

वे मुसलमान थे इसलिए
जंग लगे तालों की तरह वे खुलते नहीं थे

वे अगर पाँच बार नमाज़ पढ़ते थे
तो उससे कई गुना ज़्यादा बार
सिर पटकते थे
वे मुसलमान थे

वे पूछना चाहते थे कि इस लालकिले का हम क्या करें
वे पूछना चाहते थे कि इस हुमायूं के मक़बरे का हम क्या करें
हम क्या करें इस मस्जिद का जिसका नाम
कुव्वत-उल-इस्लाम है
इस्लाम की ताक़त है

अदरक की तरह वे बहुत कड़वे थे
वे मुसलमान थे

वे सोचते थे कि कहीं और चले जाएँ
लेकिन नहीं जा सकते थे
वे सोचते थे यहीं रह जाएँ
तो नहीं रह सकते थे
वे आधा जिबह बकरे की तरह तकलीफ़ के झटके महसूस करते थे

वे मुसलमान थे इसलिए
तूफ़ान में फँसे जहाज़ के मुसाफ़िरों की तरह
एक दूसरे को भींचे रहते थे

कुछ लोगों ने यह बहस चलाई थी कि
उन्हें फेंका जाए तो
किस समुद्र में फेंका जाए
बहस यह थी
कि उन्हें धकेला जाए
तो किस पहाड़ से धकेला जाए

वे मुसलमान थे लेकिन वे चींटियाँ नहीं थे
वे मुसलमान थे वे चूजे नहीं थे

सावधान!
सिन्धु के दक्षिण में
सैंकड़ों सालों की नागरिकता के बाद
मिट्टी के ढेले नहीं थे वे

वे चट्टान और ऊन की तरह सच थे
वे सिन्धु और हिन्दुकुश की तरह सच थे
सच को जिस तरह भी समझा जा सकता हो
उस तरह वे सच थे
वे सभ्यता का अनिवार्य नियम थे
वे मुसलमान थे अफ़वाह नहीं थे

वे मुसलमान थे
वे मुसलमान थे
वे मुसलमान थे

Lytton, Canada experienced 50°C

Canada, one of the coldest countries, has temperatures falling as low as -20°C or -30°C in winters. However, now it has experienced 49.6°C, almost 50°C. Even Delhi has not experienced that much temperature. You did normally expect 50°C temperature in Dubai or some other Middle Eastern country. How it has been possible here???

Let’s talk specifically about the area, where the temperature record has been smashed. There is a state in southwest Canada, British Columbia. In this state, there is a village named Lytton. Lies on the 50° latitude same as London, which means that the distance between the equator and both cities is the same. It is important to know because the farther we go from the equator, the colder it gets.

The climate of the area is described as Mild climate. So, most of the homes in this village don’t have air conditioners.

You could see the temperature this area experiences according to the month. (Picture from ClimaTemps.com)

July and August are the months of maximum temperature that could be expected on average of around 28°C. Although, several times it has been seen that the temperature has exceeded up to 40°C. But as you could see that the winters have temperature around -5°C or -10°C. Even the record minimum temperature here is -31°C.

Now let’s compare it with the city like Delhi because summers in Delhi are so hot that 45°C is often seen. However, Delhi’s recorded highest temperature is 48°C. The village of Canada has beaten even this. The heat was so intense, that the power cables melted, the roads got cracked. As most of the people didn’t have air conditioning in their homes, people went to public places with air conditioning to take shelter. Some people slept in their cars throughout the night with the AC turned on.

But this lasted for few days. After this, there was heatwave-induced forest fire to the nearby forest. This fire encroached on the village, and burned down 90% of the village completely. You can see in the photos…

The forest fire burning the village (photo from sky news)

Experts say that the root cause behind this extreme weather event is climate change. However, technically the reason was ‘Heat Dome.’

You could see that normally hot air rises upwards and create a situation of high pressure in the atmosphere, that again push down the hot air back to the surface. This dense and compressed air is even hotter. (Photo from DristiIAS)

Although the only heat dome is not responsible, the climate change-induced extreme weather events are becoming more frequent. Countries need to focus on the goals decided in Paris Agreement, 2015. Decided to contain the global average temperature rise to 2°C, preferably to 1.5°C when compared to pre-industrial era that is the time between 1850-1900. The steps should be taken in order to contain the temperature.

लिटन, कनाडा में 50°C तापमान का अनुभव हुआ

सबसे ठंडे देशों में से एक कनाडा का तापमान -20 डिग्री सेल्सियस तक गिर जाता है या सर्दियों में -30 डिग्री सेल्सियस यहां सामान्य है। हालांकि, अब यह 49.6 डिग्री सेल्सियस, लगभग 50 डिग्री सेल्सियस का अनुभव कर चुका है। यहां तक ​​कि दिल्ली ने भी इतना तापमान नहीं झेला है. आपने दुबई या किसी अन्य मध्य पूर्वी देश में सामान्य रूप से 50 डिग्री सेल्सियस तापमान की अपेक्षा की थी। यहां कैसे संभव हुआ???
आइए खास बात करते हैं उस इलाके की, जहां तापमान का रिकॉर्ड तोड़ा गया है. दक्षिण पश्चिम कनाडा में एक राज्य है, ब्रिटिश कोलंबिया। इस राज्य में लिटन नाम का एक गांव है। लंदन के समान 50° अक्षांश पर स्थित है, जिसका अर्थ है कि भूमध्य रेखा और दोनों शहरों के बीच की दूरी समान है। यह जानना महत्वपूर्ण है क्योंकि हम भूमध्य रेखा से जितना दूर जाते हैं, यह उतना ही ठंडा होता जाता है।
क्षेत्र की जलवायु को हल्की जलवायु के रूप में वर्णित किया गया है। इसलिए, इस गांव के अधिकांश घरों में एयर कंडीशनर नहीं हैं।
आप इस क्षेत्र का तापमान महीने के अनुसार देख सकते हैं। (Picture from ClimaTemps.com)
जुलाई और अगस्त अधिकतम तापमान के महीने हैं जो औसतन लगभग 28 डिग्री सेल्सियस की उम्मीद की जा सकती है। हालांकि कई बार यह देखा गया है कि तापमान 40 डिग्री सेल्सियस तक पहुंच गया है। लेकिन जैसा कि आप देख सकते हैं कि सर्दियों में तापमान -5 डिग्री सेल्सियस या -10 डिग्री सेल्सियस के आसपास होता है। यहां का रिकॉर्ड न्यूनतम तापमान भी -31 डिग्री सेल्सियस है।
अब इसकी तुलना दिल्ली जैसे शहर से करते हैं क्योंकि दिल्ली में गर्मियां इतनी गर्म होती हैं कि 45°C अक्सर देखा जाता है। हालांकि, दिल्ली का अधिकतम तापमान 48 डिग्री सेल्सियस रिकॉर्ड किया गया। कनाडा के गांव ने तो इसे भी पछाड़ दिया है. गर्मी इतनी तेज थी कि बिजली के तार पिघल गए, सड़कें टूट गईं। चूंकि अधिकांश लोगों के घरों में एयर कंडीशनिंग नहीं थी, इसलिए लोग आश्रय लेने के लिए एयर कंडीशनिंग के साथ सार्वजनिक स्थानों पर गए। कुछ लोग रात भर एसी चालू रखकर अपनी कारों में सोए।
लेकिन यह सिलसिला कुछ दिनों तक चला। इसके बाद पास के जंगल में हीटवेव प्रेरित जंगल में आग लग गई। इस आग ने गाँव पर कब्जा कर लिया और 90% गाँव को पूरी तरह से जला दिया। आप तस्वीरों में देख सकते हैं...
जंगल की आग से गांव जल रहा है (photo from sky news)
विशेषज्ञों का कहना है कि इस चरम मौसम घटना के पीछे मूल कारण जलवायु परिवर्तन है। हालांकि तकनीकी रूप से वजह थी 'हीट डोम'
आप देख सकते हैं कि सामान्य रूप से गर्म हवा ऊपर की ओर उठती है और वातावरण में उच्च दबाव की स्थिति पैदा करती है, जो फिर से गर्म हवा को वापस सतह पर धकेल देती है। यह घनी और संपीड़ित हवा और भी गर्म होती है। (Photo from DristiIAS)
हालांकि एकमात्र गर्मी गुंबद जिम्मेदार नहीं है, जलवायु परिवर्तन से प्रेरित चरम मौसम की घटनाएं लगातार हो रही हैं। देशों को पेरिस समझौते, 2015 में तय किए गए लक्ष्यों पर ध्यान देने की जरूरत है। तापमान को नियंत्रित करने के लिए कदम उठाए जाने चाहिए।

Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority

There is always a conflict between development and the conservation of nature. The development is possible at the cost of well-grown trees and habitat loss for the dependent animals. The habitat loss and nature destruction successfully establish a link between the increasing adversity of nature, such as global warming, changing rain pattern, increasing cyclones, green house gas effect, decreasing albedo, and man more. The Indian government has taken a step in the direction of sustainability, that is called CAMPA. Today I will discuss that.

The increasing population and requirement of resources to nurture this is a burden. As nature is capable enough to feed the population, however, not to feed greed. Our country is 2.4% of the land area of the world with 17% of population proportion. Its 24.4% of geographical area is covered under forest with four biodiversity hotspots. These forests help directly to the livelihood of people of 1, 73,000 villages. These forest also act as a carbon sink by absorbing the extra carbon from atmosphere, regulates water availability, provide life support system for the important biodiversity, and also help the planet to sustain life.

Although, many development and industrial projects such as the erection of dams, mining, and construction of industries or roads require the forest land. In India these diversions are possible only after the intervention of MoEF (Ministry of Environment and Forests). This proposal is to be submitted through the concerned forest department of the state government. If clearance is given, then compensation for the lost forest land is also to be decided by the ministry and the regulators.

Yes, when a person approaches to establish an industry at the cost of plants, the project need clearance from the Ministry of Environment and Forest. The ministry calculate the fund as compensation and also review the land provided for the diversion of plants under the Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority.

The rule- CAMPA

The Supreme Court of India ordered to establish Compensatory Afforestation Fund and Compensatory Afforestation Fund Management and Planning Authority (CAMPA) in 2001.

The fund required an equal area of non-forested area, or twice the area of forested land. It would also help India to achieve the objectives of Nationally Determined Contributions of increasing forest cover. The 90% of fund to be transferred to states, for compensatory afforestation, net present value of the forest, and other project-specific payments.

For the proper management of funds, state CAMPA were established. The problems associated with the rule:

  • Although, in 2002 the honorable Supreme Court had observed the collected funds were underutilized by the states.
  • According to law, the land selected for afforestation should preferably be contiguous to forest, so that the management would be easier for the officials. However, in intense mining states such as Chhattisgarh, Odisha and Jharkhand, to find non-forest land for afforestation to compensate is a big risk.
  • The fund is also not being utilized properly. The state of Punjab had used 86 lakh on litigation works.
  • The diversion is also associated with loss of natural species is compensated with plantation of non-native species in the name of the artificial plantation. It serves as a threat to even the existing ecosystem.  

The fund should only be used efficiently for afforestation and wildlife conservation activities. A close eye observation for the dispense of money. The state governments should use the fund to restore the existing forests rather than creating new ones. The central government should adopt the concept of outcome budgeting for allocation of funds to the state government in which funding will be done on installment basis by checking the outcome of previous funds.

Source: PIB, The Hindu, Assam govt website

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